32 Austrálie

Australia Australia ist the biggest island in the world. It’s only a little smaller than the USA and it is bigger then Western Europe. The centre of the country is very flat and dry. There are great deserts, great salt lakes and interesting plants and animals. There are strange rokcs which stand up out of the flat desert floor. The most famous of these, Ayers Rock, is the largest piece of stone in the world. It is 335 meters high and can you see it from many kilometres away. A long line of mountains runs from the nort to the south of the east coast. It’s called the Great Diving Range, because it divides the green, wet coast of eastern Australia from the hot, dry lands in the centre. Famous „Indian Pacific“ crosses the Nullarbor Plain, it runs along the longest straight railyway line in the world. The journey from coast to coast takes 65 hours. Most of Australians (85 per cent) live in the cities of the east coast. There are only 16 million people in Australia. There are 6 different states in Australia : Western Australia , Queensland , New South Wales , Victoria , Tasmania and South Australia. There are also 2 territories : Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory with Canberra, the national’s capital; city, in it. Each Australian state has its own government, and its own capital city. The state capitals are PERTH , BRISBANE , SYDNEY , MELBOURNE , HOBART and ADELAINE. Government consist of two „houses“ of parliament, the Upper House(60 members) and the Lower House (127 members). Above the parliament is the Cabinet and the Prime Minister. The head of state is the Governor General. Australia has 3 different climates. North of the Tropic of Capricorn, the weather is tropical – hot and wet. In the centre, the climate is very dry and the land is mainly desert. In the south, it is pleasant with cool winters and warm summer. Australia is sometimes called „ the lucky country“ . One reason is the wonderful riches, under the earth : gold , silver , iron , coal and many precious metals . The Bass Strait, of the coast of Victoria, has been one of the country’s biggest oil fields for many years. There are two kinds of gold in Western Australia. Gold was foun in kalgoorlie in 1893 and in still exports some gold, but the new gold of Western Australia is wheat. Big farms grow million of tons of wheat every year, and wheat has become Australia’s second biggest export. Well-known Australia’s typical animals are kangaroos, koala bears, platypuses, crocodiles and less well-known wild animals ( e.g. black swans, lizards with big blue tongues) which are protected. Australia’s farmers can grow almost anything owing to different kinds of climate. They grow bananas , sugar , grapes , apples , every kind of vegetable and there are, of course great wheat fields. But the real business of Australian farmers is sheep and cattle . (18 million beef cattle and 139 million sheep) In 1788 the first Europeans (about 1000 people) came to Australia on small ship onto the beach at Sydney Cove. 750 of them were convicts , criminals from the prisons of Britain. The name „Australia“ comes from „australis“ , the Latin word for „ of the south“ . 90% of Australians had come from Britain or Ireland. Although Australia is a Pacific country, nearer to Asia than to Europe, Australians feel that they are Europeans. Even some people who were born in Australia call Britain „home“. SYDNEY(opera house) – is the most beautiful city on earth and the most modern place in Australia. It has a perfect Mediterranean climate, fresh sea air and exciting people from all over the world. Sydney is Australia’s oldest city. Captain James Cook stopped near here at Botany Bay in 1770. In only 200 years the city grew from nothing into a home for 3,5 million people. Some people call the city „the Paris of the Pacific“. MELBOURNE – has beautiful parks and gardens amd some fine old buildings, but it is perhaps a little old-fashioned. Some famous Australian faces are : Paul Hogan (an actor), Joan Sutherland and Nellie Melba ( opera singers), Pat Cash (tennis player), Patrick White , Germanie Greer , Thomas Keneally , Judith Wright (all writers). Australians were the first nation to bring in the eight hour working day. The like to have plenty of time – time to swim, time to picnic in the bush, time to sit on the beach, time to gambke, time to do nothing. Sport is one of the things, that is really important to many Australian men. In fact, it has a very high nuámber of world champions in all kinds of sports. Football , cricket , surfing are the best famous sports in Australia. There is not really a special Australian way of eating in Australia. One of special Australia’s food is VEGEMITE (salty black stuff with a strong taste, eating on their bread) or a PEACH MELBE (delicious pudding made with peaches, cream, cake and nuts). Beer is the most popular drink. After the Germans and the Czechs, Australians are the biggest beer drinkers in the world. Australians speak English, but don’t be surprised if you can’t understand everything they say. A lot of words are made by shortening English words, There are special wods for farming and the countryside ( Oz – Australia , ta – thank you , bowzer – very good , Pom – an English person , Seppo – an American) When the white people first came to Australia, about 300 000 Australian ABORIGINALS were living there, in about 600 different groups of tribes. There are perhaps nearly 200 000 Aboriginals alive now, but life is still very sad for them. 2x klikni pro úpravu